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Expectant Parents

Expectant  Parents

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

coming soon!

Newborn HICKUP

Newborn

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Can see your face when held.

Moves arms and legs together.

Will startle easily (or can sleep right through a sudden loud noise like a dog bark!)

Will hiccup, sneeze, and sound congested. 

Tries to lift his or her head slightly when on stomach.

Will eat, sleep, and cry without any patterns. 

Likes to look at simple black & white pictures and listen to music. 

Reflexively holds your finger. 

Safety

  • Don’t let anyone smoke around your baby- it increases the risk for SIDS, ear infections, and asthma. 

  • When traveling in a car, ALWAYS have your baby in a car seat- your baby should be in the backseat, facing the rear until at least age 2, and never in a seat with an airbag. read more here 

  • Shaking or spanking your baby may cause serious injury and death. 

  • Avoid crowds – they will expose your baby to a lot of germs.

  • Have everyone who touches your baby wash their hands first.

  • Prevent Burns- turn the hot water heater down to less than 120°F. Don’t drink hot liquids while near your baby. 

  • Never leave your baby alone on a bed, couch, or table

  • Take a first aid class and infant CPR class

Call immediately if...

  • Your baby’s temperature is 100.4°F or higher (always taken rectally in a young infant) - fevers are serious in young infants. 

  • Your baby is not waking for feedings or is feeding poorly, or is vomiting. 

  • Your baby has a frequent cough.

  • Your baby is crying inconsolably for more than 30-60 minutes. 

  • Your baby’s skin looks yellow or has a rash, although babies get many rashes in the first month of life, but call if you’re worried!

Bathing and Skin Care

  • Cord care- keep the umbilical cord area dry, and only if it gets oozy or stinky, use isopropyl alcohol on it with a Q-tip. If you notice redness around the cord, call our office.

  • Give your baby a sponge bath until the cord has fallen off and is dry (cleaning all those crevices like leg folds, armpits, neck area, behind the ears, between fingers and toes).

  • Your baby will need a bath 2-3 times per week, or as often as you like.

  • Use an unscented, hypoallergenic cleanser. (see my favorites here)

  • Ear Care - clean only the outer part and don't forget behind the ear. Never put Q-tips into the ear (they may push the wax in deeper or injure the ear drum).

Sleeping

  • Your baby will sleep about 16-20 hours per day.

  • Your baby should be placed to sleep in a crib that meets current safety standards read more here, in your room, not in your bed. .

  • Always place your baby on the back to sleep, on a firm mattress, to reduce the risk of SIDS. (good article here)

  • They will sleep most of the day, and will awaken several times at night.

  • Too much stimulation during the day can make a baby cranky and sleep poorly at night. 

  • Keep the crib free of pillows, stuffed animals or blankets; your baby could suffocate. 

  • Make sure your baby turns his or her head equally both ways when lying supine and doesn’t prefer one side.

Feeding

  • Sometimes breastfed babies need bottles, especially if your baby is losing weight, is significantly jaundiced, or is not feeding well at the breast. A lactation specialist can be very helpful if the breastfeeding is not going well. 

  • Breast milk or Iron-fortified Infant Formula is the only food your baby needs. 

  • Babies should not drink water and never have honey. 

  • All breastfed babies need extra Vitamin D - give your baby 400 IU of Vitamin D every day. see product here

  • Feed your baby on demand - when your baby shows signs of hunger such as putting hands to the mouth, sucking or rooting, fussing

  • Most babies breastfeed or drink 2-4 oz. formula or pumped milk 8-12 times in 24 hours, and they generally don’t overfeed themselves, so make sure the bottle has enough to last until they stop sucking or they push the bottle out of their mouth. 

  • Hold and cuddle your baby at every feeding. 

  • If using powdered formula, always follow package directions when preparing it (generally one full scoop of powdered formula for every 2 oz water). 

  • You do not need to boil or sterilize water before making it, unless you are using well water. 

  • Burping: Babies swallow air while eating so sometimes it is necessary to burp them after every 1-2 ounces, but usually you can just burp your baby after each complete feeding. Hold your baby upright in your lap or over your shoulder, and gently pat or rub their back. Most babies won’t burp every time, and the skill of consistent burping doesn’t develop until after a couple weeks.

Bowels

  • At first, stools will be black and sticky (meconium). After 4-5 days, they will be seedy yellow and liquidy, or yellow-green pasty, but always wet and messy.

  • Your newborn may have a stool with every feeding, or 2-3 every day.

  • It is normal for a baby to grunt and make a face when passing a stool. 

  • Constipation is when the stool is firm and formed, and this type of stool is never okay for a baby. Call me if this is happening!

  • Change your baby’s diaper immediately after a poop, and in girls, always wipe from front to back. 

  • Use a cream with zinc oxide, such as Desitin if you notice the skin getting red or irritated. 

  • Your baby should have 6-8 wet diapers per day, and the urine should be clear.

Did you know?

  • Healthy babies cry 1 to 4 hours per day. When you can’t determine why your baby is crying, try: rocking, holding, cuddling, swaddling, walking, singing/music, pacifier, white noise.

  • Your baby finds your voice calming, so talk and sing to your baby often, and when your baby makes sounds, repeat their sounds and add words.

  • Babies love the great outdoors! Take your newborn outside occasionally to get some fresh air and to see the big beautiful world around them. Sometimes it’s very calming to them - and good for you too!

How are YOU?

  • Take care of yourself physically, mentally, emotionally. Parenting is hard work, and while having a newborn is extraordinarily amazing, new parents are usually exhausted and emotional!

  • Your baby needs you to be feeling good yourself so that you can provide all the love and comfort your newborn needs.

  • Try to rest or sleep when your baby sleeps.

  • Call us for help if you’re feeling especially sad, blue or overwhelmed for more than a few days.

  • Spend special time alone with each child if possible, and accept any help that’s offered from family or friends!

  • Be especially patient with your older children. Having a new sibling is exciting but can be quite stressful and confusing for them! Give them small, safe ways to help out with the new baby, and lots of praise for helping out.

  • Keep up family routines as much as possible.

Good Products to have at home for a newborn

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: aap.orghealthychildren.org

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://www.chp.ca.gov/programs-services/programs/child-safety-seats

Suggested Reading: What To Expect the First Year by H. Mukoff, Healthy Sleep Habits, Happy Child by Marc Weissbluth, Baby 411: Clear Answers & Smart Advice for Your Baby’s First Year by Ari Brown, M.D., and Denise Fields (see my favorite books here)

1-2 Week HICKUP

1-2 Weeks

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Can see and recognize your face when held.

Is listening to you and is calmed when you speak in loving tones.

Will startle easily (or can sleep right through a sudden loud noise like a sneeze!)

Will hiccup, sneeze, and sound congested.

Needs quick responses to their cries so they know they’re safe and cared for.

Will eat, sleep, and cry without any patterns.

Will cry because of hunger, overstimulation, being tired, or for no reason.

Is learning about life with every touch, so provide lots of kisses and cuddles.

Safety

  • Don’t let anyone smoke or vape around your baby- it increases the risk for SIDS, ear infections, and asthma. 

  • When traveling in a car, always have your baby in a car seat- your baby should be in the backseat, facing the rear until at least age 2, and never in a seat with an air bag. read more here 

  • Shaking or spanking your baby may cause serious injury and death. If you’re feeling overwhelmed and frustrated, take a break!

  • Avoid crowds – they will expose your baby to a lot of germs.

  • Have everyone who touches your baby wash their hands first.

  • Prevent Burns- turn the hot water heater down to less than 120°F. Don’t drink hot liquids or cook at the stove while your baby is in your arms or nearby. while near your baby. 

  • Never leave your baby alone on a bed, couch, or table 

  • Take a first aid class and infant CPR class

Call immediately if...

  • Your baby’s temperature is 100.4°F or higher (always taken rectally in a young infant) - fevers are serious in young infants. 

  • Your baby is not waking for feedings or is feeding poorly, or is vomiting. 

  • Your baby has a frequent cough.

  • Your baby is crying inconsolably for more than 30-60 minutes, or has a strange cry. 

  • Your baby’s skin looks yellow or has a rash, although babies get many rashes in the first month of life, but call if you’re worried!

Bathing and Skin Care

  • Cord care- keep the umbilical cord area dry, and use isopropyl alcohol on it with a Q-tip only if it gets oozy or stinky. If you notice redness around the cord, call our office.

  • Give your baby a sponge bath until the cord has fallen off and is dry (cleaning all those crevices like leg folds, armpits, neck area, behind the ears, between fingers and toes).

  • Your baby will need a bath 2-3 times per week, or as often as you like.

  •  Use an unscented, hypoallergenic cleanser.(see my favorite's here)

  • Avoid products for your baby’s skin which have scents or “Natural” products such as lavender. These plant-based ingredients often irritate the skin and cause rashes.

  • Always test the water with your elbow before putting your baby in. 

  • Ear Care - clean only the outer part and behind the ear. Never put Q-tips into the ear (they may push the wax in deeper or injure the ear drum).

Sleeping

  • Your baby will sleep about 16-20 hours per day.

  • Your baby should be placed to sleep in a crib that meets current safety standards, in your room, not in your bed.

  • Always place your baby on the back to sleep, on a firm mattress, to reduce the risk of SIDS. They will sleep most of the day, and will awaken several times at night.(good article here)

  • Too much stimulation during the day can make a baby cranky and sleep poorly at night. 

  • Keep the crib free of pillows, stuffed animals or blankets; your baby could suffocate. 

  • Make sure your baby turns his or her head equally both ways when lying supine and doesn’t prefer one side.

Feeding

  • Sometimes breastfed babies need bottles of pumped milk or infant formula, especially if your baby is losing weight, is significantly jaundiced, or is not feeding well at the breast. A lactation specialist can be very helpful if the breastfeeding is not going well. 

  • Breast milk or Iron-fortified Infant Formula is the only food your baby needs. 

  • Babies should not drink water and never have honey. 

  • All breastfed babies need extra Vitamin D - give your baby 400 IU of Vitamin D every day. see product here

  • Feed your baby on demand - signs of hunger include fussing, putting hands to the mouth, sucking or rooting.

  • Most babies breastfeed or drink 2-4 oz. formula or pumped milk 8-12 times in 24 hours, and they generally don’t overfeed themselves, so make sure the bottle has enough to last until they stop sucking or they push the bottle out of the mouth. 

  • Hold and cuddle your baby at every feeding. 

  • If using powdered formula, always follow package directions when preparing it (generally one full scoop of powdered formula for every 2 oz water). 

  • You do not need to boil or sterilize water before making it, unless you are using well water. 

  • Burping: Babies swallow air while eating so sometimes it is necessary to burp them after every 1-2 ounces, but usually you can just burp your baby after each complete feeding. Hold your baby upright in your lap or over your shoulder, and gently pat or rub their back. Most babies won’t burp every time, and the skill of consistent burping doesn’t develop until after a couple weeks.

Bowels

  • By now, your baby's stools should be more seedy yellow and liquidy, or yellow-green pasty, but always wet and messy.

  • Your newborn may have a stool with every feeding, or 2-3 every day.

  • It is normal for a baby to grunt and make a face when passing a stool. 

  • Constipation is when the stool is firm and formed, and this type of stool is never okay for a baby. Call me if this is happening!

  • Change your baby’s diaper immediately after a poop, and in girls, always wipe from front to back. 

  • Use a cream with zinc oxide, such as Desitin if you notice the skin getting red or irritated. Call me if it continues to worsen!

  • Your baby should have 6-8 wet diapers per day, and the urine should be clear.

Did you know?

  • Healthy babies cry 1 to 4 hours per day. When you can’t determine why your baby is crying, try: rocking, holding, cuddling, swaddling, walking, singing, playing soft music, a pacifier, white noise.

  • Your baby finds your voice calming, so talk and sing to your baby often, and when your baby makes sounds, repeat their sounds and add words.

How are YOU?

  • Take care of yourself physically, mentally, emotionally. Parenting is hard work, and while having a newborn is extraordinarily amazing, new parents are usually exhausted and emotional!

  • Your baby needs you to be feeling good yourself so that you can provide all the love and comfort your newborn needs.

  • Try to rest or sleep when your baby sleeps.

  • Call us for help if you’re feeling especially sad, blue or overwhelmed for more than a few days.

  • Spend special time alone with each child if possible, and accept any help that’s offered from family or friends!

  • Be especially patient with your older children. Having a new sibling is exciting but can be quite stressful and confusing for them! Give them small, safe ways to help out with the new baby, and lots of praise for helping out.

  • Keep up family routines as much as possible.

Good Products to have at home for a newborn

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: aap.orghealthychildren.org

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://www.chp.ca.gov/programs-services/programs/child-safety-seats

Suggested Reading: What To Expect the First Year by H. Mukoff, Healthy Sleep Habits, Happy Child by Marc Weissbluth, Baby 411: Clear Answers & Smart Advice for Your Baby’s First Year by Ari Brown, M.D., and Denise Fields (see my favorite books here)

1 Month HICKUP

1 Month

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Enjoys an abundance of affection and attention. 

May start to show a smile when talked to or played with. 

Will start to lift his or her head while lying supine. 

Responds to sounds.

Will have grown about 1-1.5" in length and about 2 lbs in weight since birth, but a little more or less is okay!

Will start making better occasional direct eye contact, but not consistently.

Finds joy and comfort in familiar faces, voices, and sensations of everyday life.

Safety

  • Never leave your baby on an unwatched surface, and keep a hand on your baby when changing clothes or dirty diapers.

  • Put your baby to sleep on his or her back, in a crib, in your room, but not in your bed. (good article here)

  • Always keep the side rails up on the crib. 

  • Keep soft items such as blankets, toys, or pillows out of the crib.

  • Keep your car and home smoke and vape free.

  • A little sunshine is good for your baby (Vitamin D!) but try to avoid more than 15-20 minutes of direct sun per day - babies have sensitive skin and are too young for sunscreen. 

  • Use a rear-facing car seat in all vehicles, and never put your baby in the front. read more here 

  • Take a first aid class and infant CPR class

  • Never ever shake your baby.  If you’re feeling overwhelmed and frustrated, take a break!

Call immediately if...

  • Your baby’s temperature is 100.4°F (taken rectally) or higher. Do not use an ear or skin thermometer because they are not accurate enough.

  • Your baby is not waking for feedings or is feeding poorly.

  • Your baby is vomiting.

  • Your baby has a frequent cough.

  • Your baby is crying inconsolably or has a strange sounding cry.

Sleeping

  • Put your baby to sleep on his or her back, never stomach.

  • Work towards putting your baby in the crib to sleep while drowsy but awake. 

  • Dress your baby in a light sleeper that will keep him or her warm without need for a blanket, but make sure your baby is not getting too hot or sweaty. 

  • They will likely still awaken to be fed 2-3 times at night. 

  • Make sure your baby’s head is turning equally both ways when lying on his or her back, and that the baby doesn’t prefer one direction.

Feeding

  • Breast milk or Formula with iron, is all that your baby should eat. 

  • If your baby is breastfeeding well and gaining appropriate weight, you can start offering your baby a bottle of pumped milk or formula. It can be very helpful for your baby to have the skill of taking milk from the breast and from the bottle. Breastfeeding moms can get a break, and other caregivers can share in the joy of feeding the baby and participate in the overnight feedings.

  • Babies should not be offered water at this age.

  • All breastfed babies need extra Vitamin D - give your baby 400 IU of Vitamin D every day. see product here

  • Your baby will eat about 3-5 oz every 2 to 4 hours, even throughout the night. Give your baby plenty of time to eat. 

  • Babies have a sucking need as well as a hunger need, so if you’re certain that your baby is not hungry, offer a pacifier. 

  • Hold your baby for every feeding. Never prop a bottle or put your baby to bed with a bottle. 

  • If your baby has gas pains, or is spitting up a lot, try holding him/her more upright when feeding and then try to keep upright for about 30 minutes after feeding. 

  • Spitting-up is very common and normal. Your baby may even projectile vomit, which usually means they just ate too much, but if the baby projectile vomits a few times in a day, call us right away.

Bowels

  • Your baby’s stools should be yellow or sometimes green, and soft and messy or liquidy. Call us if they are firm or formed. 

  • Some babies will have a stool many times a day, and other babies will stool once every few days. As long as your baby is happy, comfortable, gaining appropriate weight, and eating well, do not worry about the frequency of stooling. 

  • Change your baby’s diaper every 2-3 hours, and immediately after a stool.

  • Baby powder could be inhaled by your baby when applied to the diaper area and should never be used. 

  • Diaper rash may occur because of irritation from wet or soiled diapers. Change messy diapers quickly and apply a good barrier cream with 40% Zinc Oxide with each diaper change. Call us if it is not better in 3 days. (see product here)

Crying

  • All babies have periods of fussing and crying. These are usually in the evening between 5 pm and midnight. The amount of crying tends to increase during the first 6 to 8 weeks, then decrease. 

  • When you can’t determine why your baby is crying, try: rocking, swaying, holding, cuddling, swaddling, walking, singing/music, a pacifier, or white noise.

  • Give your baby a pacifier if he or she wants one.

  • Start having simple routines each day for eating, sleeping, bathing, and playing.

  • Hold and cuddle your baby often - “spoiling” your baby is not a concern at this age.

  • It’s time to start some tummy time if you haven’t already! While your baby is awake, and you are there to watch, put your baby in a prone position a few times each day, just until he or she gets tired of it and starts fussing. Get down there at eye level and interact with your baby to make this exercise more fun!

  • Take your baby outside every day, just to take it all in! Go on walks or just get outside for a few minutes. Little humans are soothed by breathing in the fresh air, feeling a little breeze, and by seeing the big blue sky, the varying colors, the amazing natural world around them. All of their senses are stimulated!

How are YOU?

  • Take care of yourself physically, mentally, emotionally. Parenting is hard work, and while having a newborn is extraordinarily amazing, new parents are usually exhausted and emotional!

  • Don’t forget to go to your postpartum check up!

  • Your baby needs you to be feeling good yourself so that you can provide all the love and comfort your newborn needs.

  • Keep in touch with family and friends, and find ways to spend time alone with your partner.

  • Call us for help if you’re feeling especially sad, blue or overwhelmed for more than a few days.

  • Spend special time alone with each child if possible, and accept any help that’s offered from family or friends!

  • Be especially patient with your older children. Having a new sibling is exciting but can be quite stressful and confusing for them! Give them small, safe ways to help out with the new baby, and lots of praise for helping out.

  • Keep up family routines as much as possible.

Good Products to have at home for a newborn

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: aap.orghealthychildren.org

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://www.chp.ca.gov/programs-services/programs/child-safety-seats

Suggested Reading: What To Expect the First Year by H. Mukoff, Healthy Sleep Habits, Happy Child by Marc Weissbluth, Baby 411: Clear Answers & Smart Advice for Your Baby’s First Year by Ari Brown, M.D., and Denise Fields (see my favorite books here)

2 Month HICKUP

2 Month

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Enjoys watching what’s going on around him/her.

May raise chest and head when on the stomach.

May smile, coo, and start to imitate sounds.

Will seem happy when you walk up to him or her.

Can focus on your face or on a toy.

Likes to grasp and shake toys.

May try to imitate you sticking your tongue out at them.

Safety

  • Your baby will be rolling over soon- do not leave him or her alone on raised surfaces, and always put the crib rails up.

  • Continue to put your baby to sleep on his or her back. No pillows, blankets, stuffed animals, etc. in the crib.

  • The crib should have a firm mattress covered with a fitted sheet.

  • When traveling in a car, ALWAYS have your baby in a car seat- your baby should be in the backseat, facing the rear. read more here 

  • Toys: Make sure they have no small, removable parts, and no strings or cords. Avoid stringing toys across the crib.

  • Keep plastic bags, balloons and other small objects away from your baby.

  • Set your water heater at or below 120 degrees

  • Install smoke alarms and carbon monoxide detectors in your home and check the batteries twice a year.

  • Keep the number to Poison Control Hotline handy: 1-800-222-1222 (add it to your phone contacts)

  • more about car seat safety

Call immediately if...

Call us if your baby’s temperature is greater than 100.4°F taken rectally, or if the baby has had a fever for more than 24 hours. Tylenol is safe, but should not be given to your baby unless we’ve talked, or unless it’s within 36 hours after vaccines. Never give your baby aspirin or Pepto Bismol. Also, remember, ibuprofen should not be given under the age of 6 months. Your child’s level of discomfort is the best indication for treating a fever.

Immunizations

Over the next several months, your baby will receive a series of shots for protection from several life-threatening diseases. The day vaccines are given, most babies sleep more or show no reactions to their shots. Some babies may become cranky, have a low-grade fever or get a red bump where the shot was given. To help your baby feel better, give them extra loving and cuddling, place a warm washcloth over the swollen shot site, and you may give Acetaminophen (Tylenol) every 4-6 hours after the shots (40mg if your baby weighs 6-11 lbs, or 80 mg for >11 lbs) if needed for fussiness or fever.

Sleeping

  • Place your baby in the crib, on his or her back when drowsy but still awake.

  • Many babies cry 5-10 minutes before falling to sleep.

  • Your baby is starting to develop a more regular sleep pattern. Some will sleep through the night, but some babies are still waking every 2-3 hours.

  • Make middle of the night feedings brief, leave the lights off, and try to keep social interactions with your baby to a minimum.

  • Try to not jump up to feed your baby every time you hear him or her stirring. Wait for the baby to cry, for he/she may fall back asleep without requiring a feeding, thus learning how to self-soothe.

  • Don’t wake your baby to change a diaper during the night unless the diaper is poopy or unless the baby has a diaper rash.

  • great website for baby sleep help

  • Taking a bottle to bed or nursing while in bed may increase the chance of cavities and ear infections.

  • article: why sleeping on the back is the best

Feeding

  • Breast milk or Formula with iron, is all that your baby needs- do not give cereal, pureed food or water yet.

  • All breastfed babies need extra Vitamin D - give your baby 400 IU of Vitamin D every day. see product here

  • Most babies take about 4 to 6 oz of milk every 3-4 hours.

  • Continue to feed your baby on demand, but many babies are starting to get into a routine.

  • Hold and cuddle your baby with each feed, so you can look at each other.

  • Do not give your baby honey for the first year, as the baby could get Botulism.

  • Don’t warm bottles in the microwave- the milk can get “hot spots” and scald your baby’s throat.

  • Most babies gain 1½ to 2 pounds each month.

Bowels

  • Your baby’s stools should be mostly yellow and liquidy, and frequency is usually 1-4 per day.

  • Change your baby frequently, and as soon as the diaper is soiled.

  • Diaper rash starts with extra moisture, so the key to preventing diaper rashes is to keep your baby as dry as possible.

  • Barrier creams such as those with 40% Zinc Oxide such as Maximum Strength Desitin or Butt Paste help to minimize rashes. (see product here)

  • Avoid using powders- powders can be inhaled into the lungs which is dangerous.

Bathing

  • Your baby may start to enjoy bath time now- he or she will splash, coo and play.

  • NEVER leave your baby alone in the tub, even in a bath seat or ring.

  • Use a hypoallergenic cleanser for washing, and don’t forget to gently scrub the scalp and behind the ears!

  • Scented, colored, or “natural” products used in the bath can often cause a bumpy rash on your baby’s skin.

  • It’s okay if water gets in your baby’s ears

Super Parenting

  • Hold, cuddle and rock your baby, and respond promptly to her cries – you can’t spoil your infant!

  • Talk, sing and read to your baby. Put your phone down when you’re with your baby.

  • Massaging helps a baby to relax, gently stroke his or her back, arms or legs from top to bottom.

  • Put your baby on his or her stomach with bright toys in front of him or her each day; “tummy time” helps to develop muscles.

How are YOU?

  • Take care of yourself physically, mentally, emotionally. 

  • Don’t forget to go to your postpartum check up!

  • Your baby needs you to be taking care of yourself so that you can provide all the love and comfort your baby needs.

  • Keep in touch with family and friends, and find ways to spend time alone with your partner.

  • Call us or your Obstetrician for help if you’re feeling especially sad, blue or overwhelmed for more than a few days.

  • Spend special time alone with each child if possible, like reading together or even just talking.

  • Be especially patient with your older children. Give them small, safe ways to help out with the new baby, like bringing you things and holding the baby’s hand.

  • Keep up family routines as much as possible.

Good Products to have at home for a newborn

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: healthychildren.orgkidshealth.org, https://www.chop.edu/

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/on-the-go/Pages/Baby-Carriers-Always-Use-in-the-Car.aspx,

https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/auto-baby-toddler.html?ref=search

4 Month HICKUP

4 Month

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Will likely try to roll from stomach to back or back to stomach. 

Enjoys holding brightly colored toys and playing on floor gyms. 

Enjoys batting at and kicking toys that hang.

Smiles, kicks, and may occasionally chuckle.

Makes sounds like “oooo” and “aahhh” and likes to try to talk to you.

May sit with support and hold his or her head steady. 

Puts hands and objects in his or her mouth to explore.

Has probably doubled his or her birthweight by now!

Safety

  • Keep small objects (buttons, beads, pieces of toys, coins…) and balloons off the floor and out of reach.

  • Never leave your baby alone on any surface from which he or she might fall — bed, couch, table. 

  • When traveling in a car, always use a car seat. Car seats should be in the backseat facing the rear. read more here 

  • Never text or use a cell phone while driving.

  • Never leave your baby alone in the bathtub. 

  • Have a smoke detector and carbon monoxide detector on each floor of your house—have you checked yours lately?

  • Prevent burns- set the water heater to 120°F or lower. 

  • Do not use walkers with wheels. They are very dangerous and can cause serious injuries if they tip over. 

  • Always have the number to Poison Control handy and keep it saved in your phone: 1-800-222-1222 

  • Never shake, hit,or spank your baby.

  • Do not let anyone smoke around your baby.

  • Never drink hot drinks while holding your baby, and don’t hold your baby while cooking over the stove.

Sickness

  • If your child is sick, you may give a dose of Acetaminophen every 4-6 hours for fever higher than 102°F or for discomfort. 

  • If you’re worried, call us!

  • Dose: if your baby weighs: 6-11 lbs, give 40mg; 12-17 lbs give 80 mg every 4-6 hours. 

  • In general, the height of a fever does not necessarily correlate with the seriousness of the illness. How sick your child acts is what counts! Fever is the body’s natural response to infections and plays a role in fighting them. 

  • Do not give ibuprofen products until your child is at least 6 months old.

Immunizations

  • After immunizations, your baby may become sleepy, cranky, have a low fever, and get a red lump where the shots were given.

  • To help your child feel better, give extra love, place a warm cloth on the leg, and give a dose of Acetaminophen every 4-6 hours as needed.

  • Immunizations today: DTaP, Hib, Hepatitis B, Pneumococcal, Polio, and oral Rotavirus.

Sleeping

  • Place your baby in the crib when drowsy, but still awake. 

  • Your baby may be starting to get into a routine of napping and feeding during the day.

  • Many babies cry 5-10 minutes before falling to sleep. 

  • Put your baby to sleep on his or her back. If the baby rolls over on his/her own, you do not need to keep turning your child over through the night. 

  • Still no pillows, bumpers, blankets, or toys in the crib.

  • great website for baby sleep help

Feeding

  • Breastfed babies still need extra Vitamin D, so continue giving 400 IU every day.see product here

  • Your infant still needs mostly breast milk or formula with iron, but if your baby is showing signs of wanting your food, he or she may be ready for some pureed foods.

  • Some other signs your baby may be ready to start pureed foods: good head control, interest in watching others eat, and possibly opening their mouth as food nears.

  • Soft and healthy foods like avocados, sweet potatoes and bananas are a great way to start! Allow your baby to eat as much or as little as he or she wants. 

  • Make sure all foods offered are fully pureed and thin in consistency.

  • Use a small, rubber-tipped spoon for these feedings. 

  • *To prevent food allergies, once your baby has tried a few pureed foods, offer your baby tastes of the more allergenic foods such as peanut and egg products: you can offer pureed fruits, veggies or iron-fortified infant cereal (mixed with formula or breast milk) with natural peanut butter mixed in and then mushed up/pureed bits of scrambled eggs. Consistently offer the allergenic foods 2-3 times per week. Other potentially allergenic foods such as other nut-butters, fish, and dairy products are also recommended to offer. 

  • Have fun offering these pureed vegetables, fruits, and meats! 

  • Gradually increase the number of pureed food meals to two to three a day during the next few months.

  • The amount of milk intake may start to decrease as foods are introduced. 

  • Do not give your baby honey before 12 months of age. All other foods are okay as long as they are soft and do not present a choking hazard (in general, stick with veggies, fruits, and meats (fish is great too!), unsalted and un-sugared.

  • Dairy products such as full-fat yogurt and cottage cheese are also great foods to offer, but don’t switch your baby off of breastmilk or formula and onto cow’s whole milk before age 12 months. 

  • Finally, if your baby does not like the taste of a food the first time you offer it, offer it again several times over the next few weeks.

Play

  • Make your baby’s play space interesting and fun with age-appropriate toys in a variety of shapes, textures, colors and sizes.

  • Learning happens when your baby is allowed to hold, inspect, and explore an object.

  • Be careful, if a toy can fall through a cardboard toilet paper roll, it is too small and your baby could choke on it. 

  • Your baby may be able to entertain herself or himself for short periods of time. 

  • Put your baby on his or her stomach with bright, soft, squeeze toys in front. “Tummy time” helps develop muscles and keeps the back of the head from getting too flat. 

  • Play peek-a-boo with your baby.

Teething

  • Your baby may start teething at this age, which may account for all the drooling. 

  • Teeth usually come in anytime between 5 and 12 months. 

  • Try massaging his or her gums or letting the baby chew on chilled teething toys if he or she is uncomfortable. Teething gels can have side effects- Tylenol is safer and more effective for teething pain, but it should be used minimally. 

  • Clean the new teeth by gently rubbing them with a soft, wet cloth. Softly brush the teeth when the baby has 2 or more teeth, and use the tiniest amount of fluoride toothpaste (smaller than a grain of rice) to help prevent cavities and tooth decay.

Super Parenting

  • Listen for your baby to say one sound over and over again. It is important to encourage your child to talk. Reward the baby by repeating that same sound for him or her. This shows that you are listening.

  • Don’t have a TV on in the background or use digital media to calm your baby. 

  • Respond positively to your baby by acting excited, smiling, and talking back when he or she makes sounds to you.

  • Take time for yourself and with your partner.

  • Spend lots of time outside in nature, being active or just being still and taking it all in - by yourself and with your family.

How are YOU?

  • Take care of yourself physically, mentally, emotionally. 

  • Your baby needs you to be taking care of yourself so that you can provide all the love and comfort your baby needs.

  • Keep in touch with family and friends, and find ways to spend time alone with your partner.

  • Call us or your Obstetrician for help if you’re feeling especially sad, blue or overwhelmed for more than a few days.

  • Spend special time alone with each child if possible, like reading together or even just talking.

  • Be especially patient with your older children. Give them small, safe ways to help out with the new baby, like bringing you things and holding the baby’s hand.

  • Keep up family routines as much as possible.

Good Products to have at home for a newborn

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: healthychildren.orgkidshealth.org, https://www.chop.edu/

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/on-the-go/Pages/Baby-Carriers-Always-Use-in-the-Car.aspx,

https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/auto-baby-toddler.html?ref=search

6 Month HICKUP

6 Month

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

May scoot, roll over, should be close to sitting on his own and may even start to crawl. 

Pushes up with straight arms when on his or her tummy.

Enjoys imitating sounds, squealing, and babbling. 

May search for objects that are hidden. 

May begin to fear strangers or be shy around unfamiliar people, but should know familiar people. 

Laughs!

Likes to look in the mirror.

Tries to reach for and pick up objects.

Blows bubbles / raspberries

Safety

  • In the next couple months, your baby will start scooting and crawling -it’s time to BABY PROOF!!  

  • *Gates at the top and bottom of stairs * Locks on cabinets * Plants out of reach * Safety plugs in all outlets* Small objects off floor and out of reach 

  • Do not use walkers- they are very dangerous! 

  • If your baby will be in the sun, use sunscreen (SPF 30 or higher) and put a hat on him or her. 

  • When traveling in a car, ALWAYS use a car seat. Car seats should be in the backseat facing the rear of the car. read more here 

  • Prevent burns – Do Not drink hot liquids or cook while holding your baby, and make sure your water heater is set at 120° F or below. 

  • Never leave your baby alone in the bathtub, car, or wading pool. 

  • Post the Poison Control Hotline number on your refrigerator: 1-800-222-1222 and save it in your phone contacts. 

  • Do not let anyone smoke or vape around your baby.

Sickness

  • You may use Acetaminophen (Tylenol) for fever, teething pain, or discomfort, if you feel it is necessary. 

  • Dose: Tylenol – 12 to 17 lbs.= 80mg, or if >17 lbs, give 120mg every 4-6 hours. 

  • In general , the height of a fever does not relate to the seriousness of the illness. How sick your child acts is what counts! 

  • Ibuprofen can be given to babies 6 months and older, but please be aware of the dosing - Infant ibuprofen is concentrated and twice and strong as Children’s ibuprofen (very confusing!), so follow dosing directions very carefully!

Immunizations

  • After immunizations, your baby may become sleepy, cranky, have a low fever and/or get a red lump where the shots were given. 

  • To help your child feel better, give extra love and cuddles, place a warm cloth on the leg, and if experiencing discomfort, you may give a dose of Acetaminophen. 

  • Immunizations today: DTaP, Hib, Hepatitis B, Pneumococcal, Polio, and oral Rotavirus. (and possibly a flu shot)

Sleeping

  • Start a bedtime routine if you have not yet done so. This is a nice age to get your baby into their own room.

  • Nighttime feeding can still be okay, but your baby should not awaken more than 1-2 times a night. However, your infant does not need milk during the overnight. 

  • You may have to sleep-train to get your baby to sleep through the night. This is a personal preference, but if you decide to, this is a good age to do it. Training your baby to sleep through the night gets very difficult after 7-8 months. 

  • You may need to talk to Dr. Sally about getting your baby to sleep better. 

  • Try to restrict pacifier use to naptime and bedtime. 

  • Put your baby in the crib, on the back, while drowsy but still awake. Before your baby begins to stand, lower the crib mattress to the lowest position.

  • great website for baby sleep help

Feeding

  • Continue to give your infant Breast milk or Formula with iron, most babies take 6-8oz, 4 to 5 times per day. 

  • Breastfed babies need extra Vit. D - give your baby 400 IU of Vitamin D once a day. see product here

  • Introduce a sippy cup to your baby, usually with just water, but no more than 4-6 oz per day. Juice is not recommended. 

  • Your baby should be eating two full meals of pureed foods each day, including any veggie, fruit, and meat. 

  • Be sure to include soft nut products like peanut butter, other nut butters, egg, fish, and dairy a couple times each week to help prevent these allergies (unless of course your baby is known to be allergic). 

  • Feed your baby in a bouncy seat or high chair. 

  • You may feed your baby until the baby lets you know he or she is finished, and the baby should not need milk at these meals. Do not force feed your baby. 

  • Iron-rich foods to offer include meats and iron-fortified cereals, and it is helpful to give foods rich in Vitamin C, like pureed fruits, with the cereal to help absorb the iron. 

  • Between now and 9 months, start soft or “dissolvable” finger foods (Cheerios, soft rice crackers, cooked carrots) 

  • Experiment with different tastes and textures, but never give small, hard foods such as raw fruits or vegetables, hot dogs, nuts, grapes or popcorn – your baby could easily choke. 

  • Do not give creamed vegetables, soups, desserts, or puddings. These contain extra starches and sugars that your baby does not need. 

  • Avoid foods high in salt or sugar. 

  • Do not give your baby honey before 12 months of age. All other foods are okay as long as they are soft and do not present a choking hazard. Dairy products are okay, but the baby needs breast milk or formula until one year.

Play

  • Your infant enjoys affectionate play, and games such as peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake. 

  • Always use eye contact and talk to your baby. 

  • Give your baby freedom to be on the floor (on the tummy) to explore, move, or to sit upright and look around and interact with you and his or her siblings (it’s also good for the baby’s head shape to prevent flatness). 

  • Spend lots of time hugging and cuddling.

  • Try to spend lots of time playing outside or just being outside, no matter the weather - kids are much more tolerant of changes in the weather than we are! Being out in nature is great for your child’s spirit - it’s calming, refreshing, and invigorating!

  • Take trips out to explore the world and see new things - to the park, the zoo, the farmer’s market or the supermarket!

Bowels

  • With more solid foods, stools may change in appearance. 

  • Green vegetables may result in loose, green stools… Stools may have some undigested food in them. This is normal.

  • Stools should never be hard formed balls, but they may be thicker. 

  • Pureed prunes or pears can be helpful for constipation.

  • The baby’s bladder is getting bigger, so he or she will pee less often, but larger volumes.

Reading

  • Your baby is able to understand long before he or she is able to talk. Read and talk together every day. 

  • Choose books with cardboard pages, bright colors, and big pictures. Make “story time” part of your baby’s routine, pointing at pictures in books and talking about them.

How are YOU?

  • Take care of yourself physically, mentally, emotionally. 

  • Your baby needs you to be taking care of yourself so that you can provide all the love and comfort your baby needs.

  • Keep in touch with family and friends, and find ways to spend time alone with your partner.

  • Call us or your Obstetrician for help if you’re feeling especially sad, blue or overwhelmed for more than a few days.

  • Spend special time alone with each child if possible, like reading together or even just talking.

  • Be especially patient with your older children. Give them small, safe ways to help out with the new baby.

  • Keep up family routines as much as possible.

Good Products to have at home for a newborn

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: healthychildren.orgkidshealth.org, https://www.chop.edu/

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/on-the-go/Pages/Baby-Carriers-Always-Use-in-the-Car.aspx,

https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/auto-baby-toddler.html?ref=search

9 Month HICKUP

9 Month

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

May be crawling well and may use furniture (or your leg) to pull to stand. 

Gets to sitting position all on their own. 

Shows emotions such as angry, happy, surprised, or sad.

Repeats sounds others make, and should be repeating sounds such as “dadadada” or “babababa.”

Shows “stranger anxiety” and can be shy or clingy around new people. 

May wave “bye-bye.” 

Understands simple directions (& sometimes may even do it!) 

Can find objects that are out of sight.

Safety​

  • Guard stairs and windows with railings, gates, and screens. 

  • Check the kitchen and bathrooms, and remove all detergents, cleaners, & poisons from lower cabinets.

  • When the stove or electric appliances are being used, put your infant in the high chair or gated play area. 

  • Prevent burns: watch for your infant grabbing pot handles, curling irons, irons, coffee cups… 

  • Always use a car seat when your baby is in a vehicle. Car seats should be facing the rear of the car until your child is at least 2 years old. read more here 

  • Leave all medicines in their child-proof containers, and lock them up. 

  • If your child ingests a poison or any worrisome or unknown substance, call the Poison Control Center immediately: (800) 222-1222 

  • Cover outlets, secure electrical cords, and make sure blind cords are out of reach. 

  • Watch your child at all times when he or she is near pools, hot tubs, toilets, and buckets. Children can drown in as little as two inches of water!

Sickness

  • You may use Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen for fever, teething pain, or discomfort, if you feel it is needed. 

  • Dosing: Tylenol – 12 to 17 lbs, give 80mg, or if >17 lbs, give 120mg every 4-6 hours. Please use your dosing chart or call me

  • Dosing: Ibuprofen - 12 to 17 lbs, give 50mg;  >17lbs to 22 lbs, give 75mg;  >22lbs, give 100mg Please use your dosing chart or call me if you have any question about dosing!

  • In general , the height of a fever does not relate to the seriousness of the illness. How sick your child acts is what counts!

Sleeping

  • Your infant may go to bed peacefully or fight it every night. 

  • Continue to lay your child down sleepy, but awake, preferably in their own crib, in their own room, every time they sleep.

  • Be consistent. Try to establish a routine. 

  • Night feedings have usually ended by this age. 

  • Encourage self-soothing by not responding right away to your baby’s fussing. If you go in to comfort the baby, do not take them out of the crib or bring the baby to bed in the middle of the night. This teaches that crying is the trick to getting you in their room, letting them stay up longer and getting to go to your bed. Your baby needs to build confidence in their own ability to fall asleep and stay asleep. This creates good life-long sleep habits.

  • great website for baby sleep help

Feeding

  • Give your child 3-4 meals each day, plus snacks. 

  • Table foods should play a bigger role in your baby’s diet with foods such as toast, bananas, scrambled eggs, avocados, soft cheeses, full-fat yogurt, Cheerios or similar, well-cooked vegetables, and soft nut products. 

  • As your child eats more foods, his or her intake of breast milk or formula will naturally decrease. 

  • You may offer table foods that are easily mashed with a fork. Never add extra salt or sugar to your baby’s food. 

  • Continue giving breast milk or formula until the 1st birthday. Most babies have weaned to 12-24 oz per day by 1 year. 

  • Do Not Give: nuts, hard candy, whole hotdogs, raw vegetables, apples, whole grapes, popcorn, or gum- these can cause your baby to choke. 

  • Do not give honey until after the first birthday. It could cause Botulism. 

  • Let your baby feed himself or herself small pieces ( ½ inch cubes) of food and drink from a cup with help. 

  • Continue to give 400 IU of Vitamin D every day if your baby is breastfeeding. 

  • Thirsty? Water is the drink of choice besides breast milk or formula. Do not give fruit drinks, juice, or sports drinks- they have a lot of sugar and very little nutrition. 

  • Encourage your child to use a sippy cup and plan to wean from the bottle over the next 3-6 months. Avoid bad diet habits that are hard to break -- Do not give soda, juice, candy, desserts, chips…. 

  • Babies may say no to a food 10-12 times before they try it and like it. Repeatedly try the foods they don’t like.

  • At this age, expect your child to bang, drop, fling, smear, and make a mess (and feed the dog from their high chair 🙂).

  • Juice drinkers fill up on juice and then do not eat the nutrients necessary for growth. Juice should only be given to help with constipation, with prune or pear juice being preferable. If your child is thirsty, give him or her water.

Discipline

  • All infants need rules for their safety. The best thing parents can do is give their children the freedom to explore while making some things off limits. 

  • Distracting your child and removing objects he or she shouldn’t touch are good tools at this age. Also, it is not too early to say “no,” especially to dangerous acts such as reaching up to the stove or acts such as hitting or biting. 

  • Pick and choose your "no's" - it will lose its meaning if said too often. 

  • Every child wants to please his or her loved ones. 

  • A child is more likely to change a behavior when he or she feels encouraged and valued. Praising children for things done right works better than harsh scoldings or hand smacks. 

  • Never spank or hit your child.

Bowels

  • The key to treating and preventing is keeping your baby as dry as possible. If your baby develops a rash: *change every 2 hours * avoid excessive cleansing *use a barrier cream with 40% Zinc Oxide such as Butt Paste or Desitin * use warm water and mild soap instead of baby wipes * leave his or her diaper area “open to air” as much as possible.

  • Your baby should have 1-3 soft and mushy stools each day. 

  • Hard ball stools mean constipation. The “P” fruits are best for constipation - prunes, pears, papaya, aPricot, plums…

Super Parenting

  • Limit screen time to only video calls with loved ones

  • Sit with your baby at meal times and enjoy eating together. Expect spills - learning is messy and fun!

  • Teach your child to trust you - when you leave, say a quick and happy goodbye instead of sneaking away so your baby knows you’re leaving, and then announce your return “Mommy’s back!” (or Daddy 🙂).

  • Take an infant first aid / CPR class if you haven’t already - Redcross.org

  • Teach your baby simple sign language - it’s amazing what your baby can communicate at this age with signs!

  • Play games with your baby like peek-a-boo, my turn your turn (passing a toy back and forth), dumping blocks and putting them back in a container.

  • Read every day, pointing at pictures, naming everything and talking about the pictures.

Good Products to have at home for a toddler

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: healthychildren.orgkidshealth.org, https://www.chop.edu/

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/on-the-go/Pages/Baby-Carriers-Always-Use-in-the-Car.aspx,

https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/auto-baby-toddler.html?ref=search

12 Month HICKUP

12 Month

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Is pulling to stand, and may be starting to walk.

Is climbing—can get into everything!

Is starting to point to objects that he or she wants.

Follows simple directions and plays simple games like pat-a-cake.

Is able to hold a cup and feed himself finger foods.

Babbles a lot, and may say a few meaningful words like calling a parent “mama” or “dada.”.

Tries to use a spoon, but spills most of it.

Understands “no” (pauses or stops when you say it).

Places objects inside a container.

Safety​

  • Do not leave your child alone while in the house, bathtub, yard, car, or wading pool. He or she needs constant supervision when playing outside. 

  • Use sunscreen (SPF 30 or greater) and a hat whenever in the sun. 

  • Keep small objects out of reach (marbles, coins, grapes, nuts…).

  • Check all cabinets and storage areas for knives, medicines, chemicals & poisons – lock them up or throw them away! 

  • If poisoning does occur, call Poison Control immediately!! (800) 222-1222 

  • Keep firearms unloaded and locked up, or better yet, removed from the house. 

  • Have a smoke detector and carbon monoxide detector on every level of your home. Have you checked the batteries lately? 

  • Use a weight- and height-appropriate car seat that is rear-facing and in the back seat for as long as your child meets the seat’s weight and height recommendations and until they are at least two years old. Current law states that children under two years old must be rear facing unless they weigh 40 pounds or more, or are 40 inches tall or more. read more here 

  • If you live in a home that was built before 1950 or a recently remodeled home that was built before 1978, your child may need a blood test to check lead levels. Talk with Dr. Sally if you have concerns about lead.

Immunizations

  • Today, your child will most likely receive four vaccines: the first MMR, Varicella, and Hepatitis A immunizations, and the final Pneumococcal vaccine (Prevnar). 

  • These vaccines can cause a fever, irritability, discomfort and/or redness or a lump at the vaccine site, and possibly a rash within the next 1-3 weeks. 

  • At the next visit (15 months), the usual immunizations will be Hib #4 and Dtap #4. Your child will get tested for anemia today via a toe prick.

Sleeping

  • Your toddler may start to protest the morning nap and take only one in the afternoon – that’s okay. 

  • He or she should sleep through the night and should not have any milk during the night (night feeds are a significant cause of dental cavities!)

  • Be consistent when it is time to go to bed at night. Start a pleasant and calm routine such as a bath and reading a bedtime story.

  • great website for baby sleep help

Feeding

  • Try to enjoy most meals together as a family!

  • You may replace formula with whole-fat cow’s milk (about 16-24 oz/day). Of course, breastfeeding can continue, but you can introduce cow’s milk.

  • Juice is not recommended, unless prune or pear juice is needed for constipation. 

  • Say good-bye to baby food! Let your child eat more finger foods such as soft cut fresh fruit, dry cereals, cheese, cooked veggies, chopped tender meats or fish.

  • Encourage your child to drink water from a cup. (4-8 oz/day is plenty!) 

  • Wean from the bottle to the cup! 

  • Honey is okay now!

  • Your baby’s growth rate is starting to slow down, so he or she will start to eat less. 

  • This is a common time for food struggles to arise. Focus on offering your child healthy foods, and let your child decide how much to eat. 

  • The amount of food your child eats can vary from day to day. Do not force your child to clean his or her plate. 

  • Offer your baby foods with different tastes and textures, and give your baby a chance to try foods again and again.

  • Do not let your child watch electronics during mealtimes (and put your own phone away as well).

Discipline

  • Your child is exploring the world and curious about everything. 

  • Make it easy for him or her to be good. Make sure your home is safe for your child to explore freely. Remove dangerous objects and let him or her roam. 

  • Do not spank, yell, or give long explanations.

  • Keep setting limits and be consistent and persistent when your child does something dangerous or hostile, and try to reserve “No” for behaviors that are dangerous.

  • Distract and redirect your toddler by giving them a toy or removing them from the area. 

  • Your child is becoming more independent and may resist many things. 

  • Praise good behaviors. Avoid reinforcing bad behavior – even if it’s just with your attention. With unwanted behaviors, show or tell your child what they should do instead.

  • If you feel yourself getting angry or starting to yell, take a break.

Bowels

  • Your child may have stools at regular times and even let you know when they need changing, but they are likely not ready for toilet training! Potty-training will generally be easier if you wait until around 2 years or so. For now, let your child watch you go to the bathroom so they understand the process. 

  • Watch for constipation - not pooping every day or having firm stools when they do poop is usually constipation! Give prunes or prune juice, pears or pear juice, and generally more vegetables, fruits, and fiber-rich foods.

Playing

  • Your toddler will be on the run all the time. Let him or her explore and be active, it helps with coordination and gaining strength!

  • He or she enjoys playing in the water, playing pat-a-cake, and hide-&-seek. 

  • Give him or her push-pull toys, balls, and stuffed animals. Toddlers like to imitate adults – dust, talk on a toy phone, “mow” the grass, comb his or her hair… 

  • Your child is trying to do more on his or her own, which can be hard for you. Let your child struggle a bit to do tasks on his or her own but be sure to keep your child safe. 

  • Avoid screen time. It’s best if children under age 2 do not watch any screen media.

Reading

  • Name objects on the page, and let him or her hold the book and help turn the pages. Make it a part of your bedtime routine.

Super Parenting

  • Limit screen time to only video calls with loved ones.

  • Sit with your baby at meal times and enjoy eating together. Expect spills - learning is messy and fun!

  • Encourage curiosity in your child - go to the park, the zoo, on a little “field trip” where you can point out familiar objects

  • Play simple games with your child like sorting shapes and simple puzzles.

  • Talk about body parts, pointing them out to your child to help him or her name them.

  • Encourage independence by helping your child feed and dress themselves, and be patient - enjoy the messiness and imperfections!

  • Be sure you’re brushing your child’s teeth twice daily. You should use a grain of rice-sized amount of fluoridated toothpaste. Over the next couple months, try to get to the point where the toothbrush is the last thing in your child’s mouth until morning.

  • Play with and read to your child every day!

Good Products to have at home for a toddler

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: healthychildren.orgkidshealth.orghttps://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases, https://www.choc.org/primary-care/ages-stages/

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/on-the-go/Pages/Baby-Carriers-Always-Use-in-the-Car.aspx, https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/auto-baby-toddler.html?ref=search

15 Month HICKUP

15 Month

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Stacks 2 blocks. 

Points to body parts when asked. 

Can say 2-6 words other than “mama” and “dada.” 

Stoops and picks up objects. 

Drinks from a cup and tries to use a spoon. 

Crawls up stairs and climbs on objects. 

Starts to say “no” and may have tantrums. 

Understands simple commands. 

May walk alone well and even backwards.

Shows you affection, like hugs, cuddles, big open-mouth kisses.

Safety

  • Do not leave your child alone while in the house, bathtub, yard, car, or wading pool. 

  • Use sunscreen (SPF 30 or greater) whenever in the sun and put a hat on your child. 

  • Children at this age need constant attention and guidance. They are explorers and have no sense of fear. They can quickly climb playground equipment, go up stairs, jump into pools, and explore electrical outlets. 

  • Turn pot handles toward the back of the stove when cooking, and use back burners. 

  • Check all cabinets and storage areas for medicines, chemicals & poisons – lock them up or dispose of them! If exposure or ingestion does occur, call Poison Control immediately!! (800) 222-1222 (save this number!) 

  • When in a vehicle, your child should always be in an appropriate car seat, facing the rear of the car.  read more here

  • Keep firearms unloaded, locked up, and stored away from ammunition.

Sleeping

  • Your toddler may protest morning naps and be ready to transition to one nap in the afternoon – that’s normal, but be patient while their body and brain adjust.

  • Put your child to bed at the same time each night. 

  • Maintain a routine such as bathing, brushing, and reading a few books every night before bed. 

  • Put your toddler down while sleepy, but awake, and in his or her own bed - preferably still their crib. 

  • Nightmares and bedtime fears can start at this age, and it’s appropriate to respond quickly and to comfort your child.

  • Avoid giving prolonged attention to your child if he or she awakens during the night. Offer quick and quiet words of reassurance and possibly offer a blanket or stuffed animal for comfort.

  • great website for baby sleep help

Feeding

  • Give your child full- or low-fat cow’s milk, about 16-24 oz per day, and water every day.

  • If your child doesn't like cow’s milk, offer other calcium rich foods such as yogurt and cheese every day. 

  • Make sure your toddler is getting enough Vit. D – now 600 UI daily, whether in a supplement or from cow’s milk and other foods like eggs or salmon. Did you know sardines are quite healthy and full of Vitamin D?

  • Your child should enjoy finger foods. Offer them when your child is seated, not when lying down or playing.

  • Offer a variety of table foods, cut all foods into small pieces, and avoid hard round foods like nuts, hot dog slices and whole grapes. 

  • Your baby’s growth rate is slowing down, so he or she will eat less. 

  • Offer a well-rounded diet each day including 3 meals and 3 nutritious snacks. 

  • Start good habits now, do not give your child soda, juice, chips, candy… 

  • If your child is still using a bottle, make the change to a cup. 

  • Encourage the use of a cup and spoon.

Discipline

  • Your toddler wants to demonstrate their independence and will test limits again and again. 

  • He or she may practice saying “no,” and should be starting to have temper tantrums. 

  • Your child is curious and wants to do things on his or her own - be patient and expect a mess. 

  • Set limits and rules – and use discipline to teach and protect your child, not to punish.

  • Distract your toddler when he/she’s having a tantrum by giving something else or removing the child from the area. 

  • Praise good behaviors like when they do what you ask to be done.

  • Do not yell, hit or spank your child. (Be a good role model) 

  • When you start to get angry, it’s time to take a break. 

  • Speak to your child clearly and in adult language – do not use baby talk.

Bowels

  • Your child may have stools at regular times and even let you know when he or she needs changing, but the child is not ready for toilet training! Toilet training will be easier if you wait until 2 years or so. For now, let your child watch you go to the bathroom.

  • More problems are caused by trying to toilet train “too early,” than “too late.” Let your toddler watch others using the toilet, but do not force toilet training.

Teeth

  • Use a small soft toothbrush with fluoridated toothpaste, but only a small amount is needed (the size of a grain of rice). 

  • Your toddler may want to brush his or her own teeth. Let your toddler try, and then you finish the job. 

  • It’s time to make a first visit to see the dentist!

Playing

  • Your toddler will be on the run all the time. Let them explore, try new things, and use their energy, just make sure the environment is safe.

  • Give him or her push-pull toys, balls, toy cars, and stuffed animals. 

  • Show your toddler how to play “catch” with a large soft ball. 

  • Give your child a doll and show him or her how to feed, love and take care of it. 

  • Your toddler will enjoy scribbling with pencils and crayons. (She or he will also enjoy eating them, so watch carefully!)

  • Encourage playing with blocks - stacking and knocking them down is such fun!

  • Enjoy simple puzzles and shape-sorting games with your child.

Super Parenting

  • Be a good role model: be kind, calm, appreciative, and positive.

  • Talk about feelings with your child, use words to describe what they’re feeling - frustration, disappointment, sadness…

  • Teach your child that it’s not okay to bite, hit, or hurt other people.

  • Understand that it’s normal for your child to be anxious around new people. Provide comfort for your child.

  • Give choices to your child, allowing them to choose between a couple options (grapes or blueberries? The red shirt or the blue shirt?)

  • Spend time in the great outdoors with your child - fresh air and our beautiful natural surroundings are great for the soul!

  • It’s not too early to teach your child calming techniques like deep breathing – set a good example!

  • Spend at least 10 to 15 minutes a couple times every day reading to your child. Name objects on the page, and let your child hold the book and help turn the pages. Make it a part of your bedtime routine.

Good Products to have at home for a toddler

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: healthychildren.orgkidshealth.orghttps://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases, https://www.choc.org/primary-care/ages-stages/

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/on-the-go/Pages/Baby-Carriers-Always-Use-in-the-Car.aspx, https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/auto-baby-toddler.html?ref=search

18 Month HICKUP

18 Month

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Runs clumsily and probably falls a lot.

Jumps in place, or is trying to!

Will point to body parts and interesting objects like airplanes or bugs, and may be starting to name them. 

Can stack 3-4 blocks. 

Throws a ball overhand. 

Says 5-10 words, and may use “I,” “me” “you.” 

Walks stairs with hand held. 

Can kick a ball. 

Likes to scribble.

Safety

  • Always watch your toddler closely, especially when he or she is near water or the street. Children at this age need constant attention and guidance. They are explorers and have no sense of fear. 

  • Turn pot handles toward the back of the stove when cooking, or cook on back burners.  

  • Cover all wall outlets. 

  • When outdoors, put a hat on your child and apply sunscreen with at least SPF 30.

  • If you have guns in your home, keep them unloaded, locked, and stored away separate from ammunition. 

  • Keep plastic bags, balloons, little batteries or small magnetic toys, and sharp objects away from your child. 

  • Choose sturdy toys without small, removable pieces. 

  • Check all cabinets and storage areas for poisons, medications, and cleaning products, and keep them out of reach or lock them up! 

  • If your child ingests or is exposed to anything potentially dangerous, call Poison Control immediately! (800) 222-1222 (keep this number saved in your contacts). 

  • When riding in a vehicle, your child should always be safely harnessed in a car seat. Current law states that children under two years old must be rear facing unless they weigh 40 pounds or more, or are 40 inches tall or more. read more here

  • Make sure that the smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in your home are working.

Setting Limits

  • Your child may be testing limits, saying “no,” and having temper tantrums. This is because your toddler is curious and feels more independent. 

  • Toddlers want to do things on their own. They may resist help with getting dressed or eating, and they may get easily frustrated and be independent one moment and clingy the next. 

  • Be patient, childproof your house, and create spaces where he or she can play freely. 

  • In general, try to not rush your child, even when things take longer.

  • Praise good behavior and be consistent with discipline and setting limits. 

  • During their tantrums, do not yell, get angry, laugh, or give in. Encourage your child to express his or her emotions and redirect your child’s attention to something else. 

  • Try to keep a sense of humor, be patient, and remind yourself that this phase will pass.

Toilet Training

  • Most children are ready for toilet training between 2 and 3 years. 

  • Read books about toilet training with your child.

  • Your child is developmentally ready when he/she: *Understands what the potty is for * Prefers dry diapers and can stay dry for 2 hours. *Recognizes the need to go—paces, jumps, holds genitals. * “Hides” during bowel movements. *Takes pleasure in responsibilities such as dressing self. * Has a desire to put things in order. 

  • When approaching potty-training, encourage practice runs, and offer praise for cooperation or any success, even just sitting on the potty or toilet. 

  • It should be part of the natural routine, not a forced experience.

Feeding

  • Give your child whole-fat cow’s milk, about 16-24 oz per day, but if milk is not a favorite, make sure he or she gets about 600 IU of Vitamin D every day. 

  • Offer a variety of table foods, and let your child feed himself or herself. 

  • Give 2-3 nutritious snacks daily, but try to avoid snacks or sweets as rewards. 

  • Limit the sugary and salty foods. 

  • Offer mostly finger foods. 

  • Offer food only when your child is seated, not when lying down or playing. 

  • His or her appetite is continuing to decrease as the growth rate slows. 

  • Toddlers are often choosy eaters and their appetite varies from day to day. 

  • Don’t get into battles with your child about eating, just keep offering a variety. 

  • Praise any attempt at trying new foods, and encourage healthy eating by shopping for new foods together and letting your child pick out fruits or veggies in the produce section, and then prepare and try these foods together at home. 

  • It is common for a child to not want to sit still and eat.

  • Start good habits now, do not give your child juice, soda, chips, candy… 

  • Your child should no longer be using a bottle or eating baby food!

Teeth

  • Encourage your child to use a toothbrush, and help him or her brush. 

  • Use fluoride toothpaste, a grain of rice-sized amount on the toothbrush. 

  • Brush twice a day.

  • Make sure the toothbrush is the last thing in your child’s mouth until the morning (besides possibly a pacifier).

Playing + Screen Time

  • Read to your child every day, and have books readily available for your child. Let your child choose the books, point to pictures, ask questions about the pictures. 

  • Limit screen time - 1 hour each day is plenty. Choose high-quality programs and apps, and watch or use them together with your child.

  • Be aware of your own use of screen time, social media… Be a good role model, and work to avoid being on your phone while actively with your child. Make sure your child doesn’t feel that your phone is more important than he or she is.

  • Your child needs positive social interaction with other humans of all ages. Join playgroups and other toddler get-togethers and activities.

  • Your toddler will enjoy scribbling with pencils and crayons. Show your child how to string objects on a long shoelace or thick string. 

  • Make an obstacle course out of pillows and boxes for your child to navigate - to walk, climb, and crawl through.  

  • Assigning little chores and “pretend” activities are good play. 

  • Plan frequent outings to the playground, taking walks, to the zoo, to the local airport, to a museum…

Super Parenting

  • Read and sing often to and with your child.

  • Talk about emotions, and suggest words to help your child describe and learn the language of feelings.

  • If you are expecting a new baby, read books about being a big brother or sister.

  • Teach calming techniques for times of anxiety or stress such as temper tantrums or scary or painful situations. Deep breathing is beneficial and easily taught to toddlers.

  • Spend plenty of time outdoors with your child - it’s healthy for them emotionally and physically to explore and to get a little dirty!

  • Encourage your toddler’s sense of independence and confidence by letting them do things themselves, like choosing their clothes and getting dressed, feeding themselves using a spoon and fork, etc.

  • Your child loves to feel important, so give them little tasks or chores to do, and show great appreciation for their help!

Good Products to have at home for a toddler

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: healthychildren.orgkidshealth.orghttps://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases, https://www.choc.org/primary-care/ages-stages/

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: https://healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/on-the-go/Pages/Baby-Carriers-Always-Use-in-the-Car.aspx, https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/auto-baby-toddler.html?ref=search

24 Month HICKUP

24 Month

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Is always on the go, exploring the environment. 

Walks and runs easily and runs with a wide stance. 

Can go up and down stairs with help. 

Talks in 2-3 word sentences (“More milk”) and uses “I” and “you.” 

Can remove clothing and put on shoes and shorts. 

Asks questions and refers to himself or herself by name.

Notices when others are hurt or sad, and reacts appropriately.

In unfamiliar situations, looks at your face to see your reaction.

Is using more gestures like blowing kisses and nodding or shaking the head.

Uses both hands together to explore, investigate, play with toys.

Safety

  • Check all cabinets and storage areas for poisons and lock them up! Keep medicines, chemicals and poisons out of sight and out of reach. If an ingestion or exposure does occur, call Poison Control (800) 222-1222 

  • ALWAYS use a car seat in the back seat, and keep it rear-facing until your child exceeds the weight and height limit of the seat.  read more here

  • Make sure you have working smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in your home.  

  • Water is very tempting to your curious toddler. Put fences around swimming pools, and never take your eyes off of your child when near a pool or other body of water

  • Never leave your child alone in or near wading pools or bathtubs. 

  • Apply sunscreen with at least SPF 30, put a hat on, and cover skin with cool and light clothing.  

  • Teach your child that helmets are mandatory when they are riding on anything with wheels.

  • Do not allow any smoking or vaping around your child.

Encouraging Development

  • Read to your child every day, and encourage him or her to take an active part in the “reading.”

  • Speak to your child clearly and in adult language. Stuttering is not unusual at this age and usually resolves on its own. 

  • Think about enrolling your child in a daycare, preschool or playgroup. This can help build social skills with other children.

  • Fears of the dark, animals, and loud noises often develop at this age. Reassure your child that he or she is safe. 

  • Masturbation is common. Let your child know he or she should do this in private. Be matter-of-fact and do not punish your child for this behavior.

Sleeping

  •  great website for baby sleep help

  • Most 2 year olds still take a nap and sleep 10-13 hours per day. 

  • If your child does not sleep, he or she should still have a quiet resting time in the afternoon with no screen time.

  • A crib is still very appropriate at this age and is generally well-liked by your child. It’s their own safe, peaceful place.

  • Problems with sleeping are common at this age. Try to stick to a routine: have a set bedtime, do bathtime, brush teeth, read a few books every night... A favorite blanket or toy may help increase their security. 

  • Some children have nightmares. If this happens, calm and reassure your child that they’re safe, and have the child return to his or her own bed.

Toilet Training

  • Your child may show signs of readiness such as staying dry for 2 hours, being able to pull pants up and down, wanting to learn, and being able to tell you they need to poop.

  • Encourage it but do not pressure the child. 

  • Never punish your child for accidents. 

  • Children who are trained throughout the day often still need diapers or pull-ups for naps and overnight - sometimes for years!

Feeding

  • Let your child feed himself or herself, and give him or her a variety of table foods - make their plate a rainbow of colors!

  • Serve your toddler the same healthy foods as the rest of the family. 

  • Give your child milk but not more than about 24 ounces per day. If he or she does not drink at least 16 oz. of milk a day, then serve other calcium rich foods like yogurt and cheese, and give a Vitamin D supplement daily. 

  • Children given food or “treats” for good behavior tend to overeat. 

  • 2 year olds often are “picky eaters”. Keep offering a good variety of foods. It can still take 10 to 15 tastes of a new food before your child will accept it. 

  • He or she may eat a lot of small meals and be less hungry. 

  • It is typical for toddlers to want to eat on the run, but it’s best to eat together as a family. 

  • Put phones and other screens away at mealtimes - for everyone! Talk and enjoy each other.

  • Encourage your child to spoon-feed himself or herself.

Teeth

  • Brush them everyday! Let your child brush first (since they are such “big” kids) and then you complete the job - get those molars clean!

  • Do not give sugary and sticky treats such as gummy bears, taffy, or gum drops. All of these provide food for the bacteria that cause cavities. 

  • Use a rice-grain sized amount of fluoride toothpaste until they can spit; we don’t want them swallowing a lot of toothpaste. 

  • Consider taking your child to the dentist twice a year now.

Discipline

  • Your child will learn from you how others should be treated. Try to be a good role model when you are angry or frustrated. 

  • Avoid yelling or spanking. 

  • Try to keep a good sense of humor and remind yourself that your child is just growing up and learning what is okay and what isn’t. 

  • Set consistent limits, and expect your child to test limits and repeat actions. Be patient and repeat reminders many times. 

  • When the child misbehaves, explain why the action is not okay and show him or her the right thing to do. 

  • Let your child have choices and praise his or her good behavior. 

  • When temper tantrums occur, try to be patient and understanding –just make sure the child doesn’t hurt himself or herself. Try: distraction, physically removing your child from the area, taking the child for a walk. 

  • Time-outs can be a good tool at this age. When your child misbehaves, give a warning. If he or she repeats the behavior, tell your child that it is time for a time-out and put him or her in a quiet place. Time-out interrupts unacceptable behavior by removing the child to a boring place that does not have any distractions. Keep your child there for one or two minutes. After the time is up, gently remind your child of why he or she had a time-out and give him or her a hug. Do not use time-outs too often, and have other ways of teaching your child how to act.

Super Parenting

  • Be a role model for your child - don’t use alcohol or drugs, be kind to others, be trustworthy and keep your promises to your child, point out the positive things in life and talk about being grateful for them…

  • Talk about your day together, about the things you’ve seen and heard that day.

  • Make time for family activities, and spend time with each child when possible.

  • Give your full attention to your child when you are together, avoiding your phone as much as possible. They need to know they are more important than your phone or computer.

  • Listen to and respect your child, and expect others to as well. 

  • Accept help from family and friends - you need a break too!

  • Take time for yourself and for your partner.

  • Help your child talk about feelings and emotions and name them, and teach deep breathing techniques and other calming methods.

Good Products to have at home for a toddler

Additional Resources:  

General Pediatrics: https://www.healthychildren.org/english/ages-stages/toddler/pages/default.aspxkidshealth.org

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: Car Seat Safety Article

Nutrition: MyPlate.gov, https://kidseatincolor.com/

2.5 Year HICKUP

2 1/2 Years

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Safety

  • Make sure an appropriate car seat is correctly installed in the back seat of any vehicle your child may ride in. Your child should be kept rear-facing until he or she reaches the highest weight or height allowed by the manufacturer.

  • Your child should use a car seat with a harness until the maximum height and weight is reached for that seat, then switch to a booster seat. Current law states that children under  the age of 8 years must be secured into a car seat or booster seat in the back seat. read more here

  • Keep poisons, chemicals, medications, cleaners, matches, etc. out of your child’s reach or locked up. If exposure or ingestion of a potentially harmful substance occurs, call poison control - 800-222-1222. 

  • Require your child to wear a properly fitting helmet when riding bikes, scooters, skateboards, trikes.. anything with wheels. 

  • Children are curious and tempted by water - supervise your child at all times when near water, teach water safety and enroll in swim lessons. 

  • Empty buckets, play pools, and tubs when you are finished using them.

  • Never leave your child unattended in shopping carts, strollers, the car or near the street. 

  • Keep your child’s young skin protected from sun damage - use sunscreen SPF 30 or higher when heading outside, and repeat applications every 2 hours or more.

  • Watch your child closely around grills, firepits, campfires, etc - it’s best to have a barrier around them.

Sleeping

  • Your 3 year old may or may not nap. If he or she does not nap, have a scheduled "quiet time" with no screens allowed.

  • Nightmares, bedtime fears and sleep disturbances are common. Respond and comfort your child and return him or her to their own bed. 

  • Have peaceful and quiet pre-bedtime and bedtime routines: bathtime, brush teeth, read a few books, consistent bedtime…

  • great website for baby sleep help

Toilet Training

  • Be patient! Many children don’t get there until the age of 4!

  • Your child may be completely toilet trained, or he or she may have partial success. It’s okay!

  • Some children refuse to have a bowel movement in the toilet. This is okay and normal; just put a diaper on for the movement so that your child does not get into the habit of holding his or her stools. Constipation can develop and can be difficult to resolve. 

  • Most children still need diapers or pull-ups while asleep, and may not develop over-night dry diaper/pull-up success for many months or even years! 

  • Make potty-training easier: dress your child in clothing that is easily removed, place them on the toilet every 1-2 hours (but do not make this a battle!) and give lots of praise for successful outcomes.

  • Create a happy and peaceful environment by reading or singing on the potty.

Feeding

  •  Offer your child 3 healthy meals plus snacks. 

  • He or she may only eat 1 “good” meal per day- that’s okay.

  • Limit milk to around 24 ounces per day, and if your child does not drink at least 16 ounces of milk a day, offer other calcium-rich foods such as yogurt and cheese, and continue to give vitamin D supplements.

  • Encourage a variety of healthy foods even if he or she is picky. It can still take 10 to 15 tastes of a new food before your child will accept it. Try to get vegetables in their meals every day. Making smoothies is a great way to sneak some veggies in!

  • Make meals a family time. Turn the TV off, put away electronic devices, and talk with your children.

  • Avoid battles about what your child eats, and do not bribe him or her with food. 

  • Limit or avoid sweets, french fries, chips and other junk foods. Establish good eating habits now!

  • Give water when thirsty. Your child does not need juice, soda, sports drinks, or other sweetened drinks.

  • Try to have set meal times. You decide when and what your child eats. He or she decides whether and how much to  eat. 

  • Use caution when giving your child small, hard and round foods that he or she can choke on such as nuts and whole grapes. Do not allow them to walk around eating these.

Discipline

  • Expect him or her to test limits constantly. 

  • Apply limits and rules consistently! 

  • Remember, you are in charge because you know what is acceptable behavior and what is safe and not safe for your child. 

  • Be a good role model; your child learns from you how others should be treated.

  • Praise and reward good behavior. Avoid using money and food as rewards. 

  • Your toddler may bite or hit at times. Stop hostile behavior from your child and talk about their feelings behind those actions and how they affect other people. 

  • Teach your child to apologize.

  • Do not hit or spank your child and avoid yelling

Healthy habits

  • Your child should have his or her first dental visit soon if not already. 

  • Help your child brush his or her teeth every day (with your help)– use a tiny amount of fluoride toothpaste  until he or she knows how to spit out the toothpaste, and then you can use more.

  • Limit TV and electronics time to no more than about 1 hour per day total. Monitor programs for violence and inappropriate content. 

  • Read with your child at least once a day, and take turns “reading” the book or telling the story.

  • Join a playgroup, make playdates, or start your child in a daycare or preschool. Socializing with other children has significant benefits for their developmental, social, and emotional well-being!

Super Parenting

  • Give lots of praise, hugs and affection! 

  • Give your child simple responsibilities (help pick up toys, carry laundry, put things away).

  • Allow your child to choose between alternatives. Giving choices will lead to greater cooperation. 

  • Enroll your child in activities where he or she can interact with other children of the same age. 

  • Your child will enjoy blocks, large boxes, crayons, finger paints, balls, adult tool replicas. 

  • Teach emotional regulation - deep breathing, do yoga together, read books about emotions and feelings.

  • Visit the library, the park, the zoo, and take plenty of time to enjoy the great outdoors together, taking time to talk about and respect our earth.

  • Be patient, your child may ask to read the same book again and again.

  • Children learn self-respect and love when they feel that they and their ideas are important to you. Take the time and really listen to what your child has to say. 

Good Products to have at home for a toddler

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: https://www.healthychildren.org/english/ages-stages/toddler/pages/default.aspxkidshealth.org

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: Car Seat Safety Article

Nutrition: MyPlate.gov, https://kidseatincolor.com/

3 Year HICKUP

3 Years

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Is constantly asking questions - who, what, where, and why.

Probably knows their colors. 

Jumps with both feet. 

Knows and can tell you his or her name and age.

Dresses with some supervision and help. 

Can copy circles. 

Plays interactive games. 

Is starting to take turns and share. 

Talks in 3-4 word sentences, uses plurals, and talks well enough for others to understand, most of the time.

Is having a good imagination. 

Describes actions in books.

Safety

  • Your child should always be safely harnessed into an appropriate car seat in the back seat of any vehicle.  

  • Current law states that children under the age of 8 years must be buckled into a car seat or booster in the back seat. read more here 

  • Keep poisons, chemicals, medications, cleaners, matches, etc. out of your child’s reach or locked up. If poisoning occurs, call Poison Control immediately (800) 222-1222. 

  • Insist that your child wear a helmet when riding a bike, tricycle, scooter or skateboard. 

  • Water is very tempting to the curious preschooler – supervise your child at all times, teach water safety, and enroll your child in swim lessons. 

  • Make sure you have working smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors. 

  • Have a “family fire plan” (safest way out, safe meeting place…)

  • If you feel that firearms are necessary to have in your home, store them in a locked cabinet at all times with ammunition stored in a separate location. 

  • Never leave your child unattended in shopping carts, the stroller, the car or near the street.

Healthy Habits

  • Your child should have his or her first dental visit soon if not already. 

  • Help your preschooler brush his or her teeth every day – use a tiny amount of fluoride toothpaste until he or she knows how to spit out the toothpaste, and then you can use more. 

  • Put a hat on your child and use sunscreen anytime your child will be in the sun. (SPF 30 or higher) 

  • Limit TV and electronics time to around 1 hour per day total. Be very aware of the content your child is watching and has access to, and monitor programs for violence and other inappropriate content.

  • Stay active together as a family, and make sure you get outside and enjoy nature every day!

Sleeping

  • great website for baby sleep help

  • Your 3 year old may or may not nap. If he or she does not nap, have a scheduled "quiet time" - no screen time allowed.

  • Nightmares, bedtime fears and sleep disturbances are common. Respond and comfort your child and return them to their own bed. 

  • Maintain a peaceful and consistent bedtime routine: bathtime, brushing teeth, reading a few books…

Feeding

  • Offer your child three healthy meals plus snacks. 

  • He or she may only eat 1 “good” meal per day- that’s okay.

  • Limit milk to around 24 ounces per day, and if your child does not drink at least 16 ounces of milk a day, serve other calcium-rich foods such as yogurt and cheese and continue to give vitamin D supplements. 

  • Encourage and offer a variety of foods every day, including daily vegetables. 

  • It can still take 10 to 15 tastes of a new food before your child will like it. 

  • Make meals a family time, with the TV off, electronic devices put away, and healthy family conversations and interactions. 

  • Limit or avoid sweets, french fries, chips and other junk foods. Establish good eating habits now!

  • Give water when thirsty. Your child does not need juice, soda, sports drinks, or other sweetened drinks. 

  • Have fairly consistent meal times. 

  • You decide when and what your child eats. He or she decides whether and how much to eat.

Toilet Training

  • Be patient! Your child may be completely toilet trained, or he or she may have partial success. 

  • Some children refuse to have a bowel movement in the toilet. This is okay and normal; just put a diaper on for the movement so that your child does not get into the habit of holding his or her stools. Constipation can develop and can be difficult to resolve. 

  • Many children still need diapers or pull-ups while asleep.

Discipline

  • Expect your child to test limits constantly. Apply limits and rules consistently! 

  • Discipline is for their well-being, to teach them appropriate behavior and safety.

  • Be a good role model; your child learns from you how others should be treated. 

  • Praise and reward good behavior. Avoid using money and food as rewards. 

  • Your toddler is more flexible than during the “terrible twos,” but still cries and may bite or hit at times. Stop this behavior and talk about how these actions affect other people. 

  • Teach your child to apologize when appropriate to do so, and be a good role model here.

  • Do not hit or spank your child and avoid yelling. 

  • Time outs are still a good tool but do not use them too often.

Super Parenting

  • Children learn self-respect and love when they feel that their ideas are important to you. Listen to what your child has to say. 

  • Preschoolers idolize their parents. They want to be where you are, do what you’re doing, and be like you. They want to please you and need your approval – let them!

  • Talk about your child’s emotions and help with words to explain these feelings.

  • Help your child manage stressful feelings by practicing deep breathing, or hugging a favorite stuffed animal, or going to a safe and peaceful environment.

  • Give lots of praise, hugs and affection! 

  • Give your child simple responsibilities (help pick up toys, carry laundry, help get the mail). 

  • Allow your child to make choices. Giving choices will lead to greater cooperation. 

  • Teach personal safety: name, address, phone number, street and water safety. 

  • Enroll your child in activities where he or she can interact with other children of the same age. 

  • Read simple stories to your child every day. They will enjoy books with large pictures. Let them pick out the book, talk about the pictures, and for variety have them tell you the story.

Good Products to have at home

Additional Resources:

General Pediatrics: https://www.healthychildren.org/english/ages-stages/toddler/pages/default.aspxkidshealth.org

Immunization information: immunize.org, cdc.gov/vaccines, vaccines.chop.edu

Car seat information: Car Seat Safety Article

Nutrition: MyPlate.gov, https://kidseatincolor.com/

Parenting: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/, https://www.coursera.org/learn/everyday-parenting

4 Year HICKUP

4 Years

Meet Dr. Sally-2.png

Hops, skips, runs, climbs. 

Can throw and catch a ball (most of the time).

Can copy a circle and a square and draw a person with at least three body parts. 

Tells tall tales and enjoys pretending to me something else (a dog, a superhero, their teacher).

Comforts others who are sad or hurt. 

Is beginning to understand “time.” 

Speaks in full sentences with good enunciation, and can tell you all about their day!

Likes to be a helper and receive positive recognition.

Safety

  • Teach your child the importance of a bike helmet – every time, all the time! 

  • Always use a car seat, placed in the back seat. At this age, most children should be in a forward-facing car seat with a harness for as long as possible, up to the highest weight or height allowed by their car seat manufacturer. Child Safety Seats. read more here 

  • An adult must supervise activities near streets and water. Knowing how to swim does not make your child “drown-proof.” 

  • Remove doors from old appliances (freezers, refrigerators, dryers…) Exploring children can get locked inside. 

  • Lock up medicines, poisons, chemicals and matches. Children are curious and will explore! 

  • Teach your child to not follow pets or balls into the road. 

  • Have a “family fire plan” (safest way out, safe meeting place…) 

  • Keep your water heater set at less than 120°. 

  • If you must have guns in your home, keep them unloaded, locked, and stored away from ammunition. 

  • Cook on the back burners of your stove to reduce the risk of burns. If your child gets burned, apply cold water (not ice and not aloe) right away and call the doctor.

Healthy Habits

  • Your child needs 10–12 hours of sleep each night with a consistent bedtime. 

  • He or she may or may not need a nap. 

  • Help your child brush his or her teeth twice a day. Use a tiny amount of fluoride toothpaste until he or she can spit. 

  • Your child should be regularly visiting the dentist for check-ups every 6 months.

  • Use sunscreen anytime your child will be in the sun. (SPF 30 or higher). 

  • Limit TV, screen and computer time to no more than about 1-2 hours per day total, and be sure you know exactly what they are watching or doing on the device.

  • Praise your child for being active, and be active together as a family often, spending plenty of time in the great outdoors.

Discipline

  • Your preschooler will continue to test parental limits – set firm rules and stick to them! 

  • Praise often (even for little things) and reward good behavior. 

  • He or she may use “naughty” words just to see your reaction. Stay calm and don't laugh. 

  • Be a good role model. 

  • Avoid yelling and spanking.

  • Be clear and consistent when disciplining your child. Explain and show the behavior you expect.

  • Teach positive ways to handle anger and conflict (ie: use words to express feelings, count to 10, take some slow deep breaths). 

  • Stop aggressive behavior immediately. 

  • Decide upon a consistent response from all caregivers. 

  • Give your child a few simple choices (which clothes to wear, what snack to eat…)

Feeding

  • Make meals a relaxed family time, with no screens allowed. 

  • Make trips to the farmer’s market together and let your child pick out which produce looks good to them! 

  • Offer healthy finger foods for snacks. (vegetable sticks, cut up fruit, cheese) 

  • Offer a colorful variety of foods and encourage him or her to try new things. 

  • Try to avoid battles about food choices-You decide when and what foods are offered. Your child will decide whether and how much to eat. 

  • 16-24 oz of 2% milk per day is plenty, and if your child does not drink milk, give 600 IU of vitamin D and other dairy products. 

  • Limit or avoid juice, soda, sports drinks, chips and sweets.

Immunizations

  • DTaP, MMR, Varicella, and Polio booster shots are given at the 4 or 5 year visit. 

  • We will also check your child's hemoglobin level with a finger prick.

  • If your child is up to date, the next vaccines are not until about 5th grade (except annual flu shots)! 

  • Most children show no reaction to their shots. If he or she experiences discomfort, place a warm washcloth over the site and give acetaminophen or ibuprofen. 

  • Encourage movement of the extremity - it will decrease soreness.

Super Parenting

  • Give praise frequently, and show affection freely. 

  • Take family walks, go to the park or play catch. Take short day trips to the zoo, the library to pick books, or a museum. 

  • Read to your child every day and discuss what’s happening in the story. You can ask what they think will happen next.

  • Your child enjoys helping with simple tasks – let him or her. You’ll be sharing valuable life lessons. Chores build responsibility, self-respect, enhance family communication and offer many “teachable moments.” 

  • Your child needs a consistent environment on which he or she can depend. This gives feelings of belonging and security.

  • Help your child be ready for new situations - you can read stories or role-play to help make him or her more comfortable.

  • Praise your child for being kind to others.

  • Give your child plenty of time to finish sentences.

  • Treat your child with respect, and expect others to as well.